Outperforms standard polyamides in heat, moisture and chemical resistance
Amodel® polyphthalamide (PPA) is an aromatic polyamide that outperforms standard polyamides with higher strength and stiffness at elevated temperatures, better retention of properties in humid environments, and greater resistance to a broader range of chemicals.
Higher Heat Resistance
Amodel® PPA is used to replace metal in high-temperature automotive applications. Continuous-use temperatures range from 120°C to 185°C (248°F to 365°F). Heat deflection temperatures (HDT) go up to 310°C (590°F).
Thermal properties comparison, ASTM test method
Lower Moisture Absorption
Humid environments can have a devastating effect on the mechanical properties of standard polyamides. Amodel® PPA’s lower water absorption rate results in significantly less change in strength and stiffness, even with high levels of humidity.
Effect of moisture on tensile strength, ASTM test method
Effect of moisture on flexural modulus, ASTM test method
Better Chemical Resistance
Amodel® PPA’s highly aromatic ring structure provides greater resistance to a broader range of chemicals than standard aliphatic polyamides, even at high temperatures. This enables automotive, electrical and industrial components to withstand prolonged exposure to harsh chemicals:
- Bio-diesel fuel
- Brake fluid
- Calcium chloride
- Synthetic motor oil
- Road salt
- Sulfuric acid
- Transmission fluid
- Zinc chloride
How We Make the Amodel® PPA Grades
Our polyphthalamide products are based primarily on three semi-aromatic, semi-crystalline polyamide base resins, with each offering distinct performance and processing characteristics.
Glass fibers, heat stabilizers, impact modifiers, minerals and other materials are compounded with these base resins to create a comprehensive selection of Amodel® PPA products for use in a vast array of applications.
|Amodel® PPA Base Resins|
|A-1000 Series||Hot-oil moldable (mold temp >135°C)||High long-term thermal performance. High-flow HFZ grades available.||123||253||313||595|
|A-4000 Series||Hot-water moldable (temp <100°C)||Fastest crystallization for very fast cycle times. Compatible with SMT processing. High-flow HFZ grades available.||100||212||325||617|
|A-6000 Series||Hot-water moldable (mold temp <100°C)||Excellent processing characteristics and surface appearance.||88||190||310||590|
|A-8000 Series||Hot-oil moldable (mold temp >135°C)||Highest long-term thermal performance. Best resistance to chemicals and moisture.||130||266||325||617|
Glass fibers boost strength and stiffness, while enhancing short-term thermal properties as well as long-term resistance to creep and fatigue. For applications requiring wall thickness greater than 3 mm (0.125 in.), consider one our AS grades.
Strength and stiffness comparison, ASTM test method
|Glass Fiber Reinforced Grades|
|Amodel® A-1133 HS||33% glass fiber, general purpose, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® A-1145 HS||45% glass fiber, general purpose, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® A-1565 HS||65% mineral/glass fiber, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® A-1933 HSL||33% glass fiber, glycol resistant, heat stabilized, lubricated|
|Amodel® A-4160 HSL||60% glass fiber, highest modulus, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable, heat stabilized, lubricated|
|Amodel® A-6135 HN||35% glass fiber, high flow, hot-water moldable, heat stabilized, not lubricated|
|Amodel® A-8930 HS||30% glass fiber, glycol resistant, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® A-8940 HS||40% glass fiber, glycol resistant, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® A-8950 HS||50% glass fiber, glycol resistant, heat stabilized|
|Grades for Wall Thicknesses >3 mm|
|Amodel® AS-1133 HS||33% glass fiber, general purpose, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AS-1145 HS||45% glass fiber, general purpose, heat stabilized|
|Amodel AS-1566 HS||65% mineral/glass fiber, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AS-1933 HS||33% glass fiber, glycol resistant, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AS-1935 HS||35% glass fiber, glycol resistant, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AS-1945 HS||45% glass fiber, glycol resistant, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AS-4133 HS||33% glass fiber, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable, heat stabilized, lubricated|
|Amodel® AS-4133 L||33% glass fiber, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable, lubricated|
|Amodel® AS-4145 HS||45% glass fiber, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable, heat stabilized, lubricated|
|Carbon Fiber Reinforced Grades|
|Amodel® A-1625 HS||25% carbon fiber, conductive, heat stabilized|
Impact modifiers add toughness and increase impact resistance. Toughened Amodel® PPA products are designated with the AT prefix. For applications needing low modulus at high temperature, consider an unfilled toughened grade.
Improved impact resistance, ASTM test method
|Amodel® AT-1001 L||Unreinforced, impact modified, lubricated|
|Amodel® AT-1002 HS||Unreinforced, impact modified, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AT-1116 HS||16% glass fiber, impact modified, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AT-1125 HS||25% glass fiber, impact modified, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AT-6115 HS||15% glass fiber, impact modified, high flow, hot-water moldable, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AT-6130 HS||30% glass fiber, impact modified, high flow, hot-water moldable, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® ET-1000 HS||Highly impact modified, heat stabilized|
Minerals reduce warpage and differential shrinkage by disrupting the orientation of the glass fiber. This results in more uniform shrinkage and improves dimensional stability.
|Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion|
|0° to 100°C||Flow||ASTM E831||ppm/°C||24||17|
|0° to 100°C||Transverse||ASTM E831||ppm/°C||55||40|
|100° to 200°C||Flow||ASTM E831||ppm/°C||27||17|
|100° to 200°C||Transverse||ASTM E831||ppm/°C||115||72|
Data Sheet: Amodel® A-1133 HS
Data Sheet: Amodel® AS-1566 HS
|Mineral/Glass Fiber Reinforced Grades|
|Amodel® A-1565 HS||65% mineral/glass fiber, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AS-1566 HS||65% mineral/glass fiber, heat stabilized, for wall thicknesses >3 mm|
High flow grades improve the molding of thin-walled components typical of electronics applications. They are designated with HFZ followed by standard Amodel® PPA nomenclature.
|Amodel HFZ A-4133 L||33% glass fiber, high flow, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable, lubricated|
|High reflectivity grades for LEDs|
|Amodel® A-1133 NL WH505||33% glass fiber, high-reflectivity white for LEDs|
|Amodel® A-4122 HR WH117||22% glass fiber, high-reflectivity white for LEDs, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable|
|Amodel® A-4122 LS WH678||22% glass fiber, high-reflectivity white for LEDs, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable, light stabilized|
|Amodel® A-4122 NL WH905||22% glass fiber, high-reflectivity white for LEDs, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable|
|Amodel® A-4422 LS WH118||22% mineral, high-reflectivity white for LEDs, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable, light stabilized|
Flame retardant grades have achieved a UL 94 V0 rating and are compatible with SMT processing techniques such as infrared reflow and vapor phase soldering.
|Amodel® HFFR-4133||33% glass fiber, halogen-free, fast cycle time, hot-water moldable|
|Amodel® AFA-6133 V0 Z||33% glass fiber, flame retardant, high flow, hot-water moldable|
|Amodel® AFA-6145 V0 Z||45% glass fiber, flame retardant, high flow, hot-water moldable|
|UL Rating and Relative Thermal Index (RTI)|
|Grade||Thickness, mm||UL 94 Rating||Relative Thermal Index||Other Ratings|
|Electrical||Mechanical with Impact||Mechanical without Impact||HWI||HAI|
|Amodel® AFA-6133 VO Z||O.30||V-0||105°C||65°C||65°C||0||1|
|Amodel® AFA-6145 VO Z||O.75||V-0||140°C||130°C||0||1|
Outstanding electrical properties make Amodel® PPA ideal for use in connectors, switches and other applications requiring the material to act as an electrical insulator.
|Electrically Friendly, Heat Stabilized Grades|
|Amodel® AE-4133||33% glass fiber, hot-water moldable, fast cycle times, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AE-8930||30% glass fiber, best chemical resistance, lowest moisture absorption, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AE-8935||35% glass fiber, best chemical resistance, lowest moisture absorption, heat stabilized|
|Amodel® AE-8950||50% glass fiber, best chemical resistance, lowest moisture absorption, heat stabilized|
|Property||Units||Amodel® AE-1133||Amodel® AE-4133||Amodel® AE-8930||Amodel® AE-8930||Amodel® AE-8950||Test Method|
|Volume Resistivity||ohms-cm||1E+16||5.6E+15||1E+16||1E+16||1E+16||ASTM D257|
|Dielectric Strength, 3.2 mm||kV/mm||1E+16||21||19||18||21||ASTM D149|
|Dielectric Constant||26||26||ASTM D150|
|Dissipation Factor||ASTM D150|
|Arc Resistance||sec||140||ASTM D495|
|Comparative Tracking Index (CTI)||V||550||600||>600||>600||>600||UL 746|
|High Voltage Arc Tracking Rate (HVTR)||mm/min||18||UL 746|
* UL performance class ratings vary for each property; visit www.ul.com for definitions.
|High Heat Resistant Grades|
|Amodel® A-4145 HH||45% glass fiber, high flow, hot-water moldable, continuous use 220°C to 270°C|
|Wear Resistant Grades|
|Amodel® A-1130 FW||30% glass fiber, internally lubricated, wear resistance|
PPA is the acronym for Polyphtalamide, a semi-crystalline polyamide with aromatic chemical building blocks which provide a unique combination of properties and advantages to the polymer range.
The color of naturally colored Amodel® PPA grades can be described like milky white and depending on the amount and type of filler in the compound, it can vary from off-white to greenish white.
Amodel® parts will absorb moisture over time and depending on the amount it has absorbed, a natural colored NT grade can change in color to a more greenish shade. The color change is a reversible process though and after drying the part, it will return to its initial color under the assumption that the surface has not been oxidized due to the drying process.
Naturally colored Amodel® PPA products can be colored by means of color masterbatches. Colorbatches with a PA66 carrier for example can be blended at the hopper of the molding machine to result into a colored molded part. It is important however to be aware that the molding process can be influenced by adding such masterbatches and that mechanical properties of the final part can be different than for the original PPA part. Also the color stability will depend on the carrier and pigments that are used in the masterbatch. Colorbatches with a PPA carrier are available on the market which result in a better compatibility with Amodel® PPA resins.
Amodel® PPA compounds are available with different base resins which are based on a different chemical molecule structure. This results into products with different properties, not only for their chemical resistance for example but also for the crystallization speed when transitioning from the molten to the solid phase. Faster crystallizing products don’t require this high mold temperature compared with slower crystallizing grades. The optimum mold temperature therefore depends on the part wall thickness but also on the product type.
Please read our Amodel® processing guide for further detailed information about molding Amodel® resins, and the technical data sheets for detailed information of each grade.
PPA compounds can be dissolved in several solvents like m-Cresol or P-TCE (60/40 Phenol / 1,1,2,2 Tetra-Chlor-Ethane) which are described in the ISO 307 or ASTM D2857 or D5225 norms for determining solution viscosities of polymers. Due to the hazardousness of these solvents, also very strong acids like highly concentrated sulphuric acid or formic acid are frequently used for dissolving PPA resins.
Samples pellets for molding trials and several shapes of molded articles can be supplied for testing purposes. There is a wide range of products and sample types available. Stock shapes or other thick walled semi-fabricates for machining prototype parts for example, are not offered due to the complexity of the practical aspects to cool such parts fast enough and prevail the material from being degraded at the inner core of thick sections.
Molding Amodel® PPA parts requires a couple of basic preparations and equipment which are key to the quality of molded parts. Proper measures need to be taken related to drying the resin and keeping it dry before processing, as well as selecting a suitable size of the molding machine with respect to the shot volume and the total residence time of the polymer in the machine. A frequently underestimated aspect is the tool design and venting aspects, which should be big enough machined in order to obtain a long maintenance and cleaning interval of the tool.
Please read our Amodel® processing guide for further detailed information about molding Amodel® resins.
Amodel® PPA resins need to be dried before they are processed. The Amodel® resins are processed at an elevated temperature which is close to its degradation limit and slight amounts of moisture at this high temperature, lead to a hydrolysis reaction (polymer chain scission) which results into a loss of mechanical properties. Besides the influence on the mechanical performance, it also has an effect on the generation of volatile components which sublimate onto the surface leading to mold & vent deposits in the tool.
Please read our Amodel® processing guide for further detailed information about molding Amodel® resins, and the technical data sheet for detailed information of each grade.
To avoid and reduce the formation of mold deposits in the tool and tool vents, it is recommended to sufficiently dry the resin according to the product recommendations and to apply sufficiently large and well-designed vents. Also the recommended melt temperature as indicated on the product datasheet should be taken into account.
Please read our Amodel® processing guide for further details on vent design and dimensions.
To avoid excessive degradation of Amodel® PPA resins, it is recommended to purge the screw and barrel of the molding machine if an interruption of several minutes occurs. For short interruptions or standstills of the molding machine, a purge of the screw is sufficient. For longer interruptions or material switchovers, a purging cycle with a cleaning agent is recommended.
Further details related to the purging procedures can be found in the Amodel® processing guide under the “Purging” section.
Solvay Specialty Polymers has developed Amodel® compounds with fillers and additives that are suitable to match several food and water contact regulations.
For more information, consult the technical data sheets of DW and FC grades.
The use of high temperature engineering polymers in combination with hot runner systems requires some special attention with respect to the material residence time and thermal house holding of the hot runner system. It's best to consult one of our Specialty Polymers experts.
A series of Amodel® PPA grades are characterized to be able to make rheological and mechanical analyses of injection molded parts. Data is openly available in most of the commercial rheological software (Moldflow, Moldex, CADFlow...). Many Digimat data as well as stress-strain curves can be obtained.
Solvay Specialty Polymers has a range of products which is particularly suited for such forced ejections from the tool. By taking specific design recommendations into account, it is possible to eject the part from the tool without a failure or complete deformation of the part, which is frequently required for automotive applications.